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Soal EAP (English For Academic Purposes) Test

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EAP merupakan standar tes untuk akademisi seperti mahasiswa, pelajar, guru atau dosen untuk mengukur tingkat pemahaman dalam mempelajari literatur-literatur berbahasa Inggris. Semestinya dalam mempelajari ilmu apapun, membaca dari literatur asing amat diperlukan. Jika hanya mengandalkan sumber yang berbahasa Indonesia maka akan terbatas dan kemungkinan belum update. Berikut ini adalah contoh soal tes EAP. Semoga bermanfaat 🙂

Reading Skills Test 1

Questions 1 and 2 refer to the following passage:

Each year, millions of people visit the national parks of the American West, and they come for a variety of reasons. Some seek to explore the historical past. Others are looking for a short escape from the hot city or the crowded office or factory. Still others are trying to learn something about the mysteries of nature. Whatever their reason for visiting the parks, few leave disappointed.

Question 1: Answer & Explanation Question:

  1. People who visit the parks for the first reason mentioned by the author would most probably want to see:

(A) an animal preserve
(B) the ruins of a Pueblo Indian village
(C) a canyon with a variety of geological formations
(D) a geyser with a predictable pattern of eruptions

Right Answer: (B) the ruins of a Pueblo Indian village

Explanation:

This question asks you to reason from the text by taking a statement in the passage and drawing a conclusion from it about what is probably true. The first reason that the author mentions for visiting the parks is “to explore the historical past.” You can conclude that people who want to explore the past would be especially interested in seeing “the ruins of a Pueblo Indian village,” since the ruins represent a bygone era and way of life. Thus (B) is the correct answer; (A), (C), and (D) list sights that are more likely to attract people who want “to learn something about the mysteries of nature,” another reason for visiting the national parks (see the next-to-last sentence).

Skill Tested: REASONING FROM THE TEXT

Question:

  1. The passage tell us what about national parks?

(A) Those in the West are preferable to those in the East.
(B) They serve relatively few people.
(C) They should be closed to people who treat them badly.
(D) They satisfy the needs of many people.

Right Answer: (D) They satisfy the needs of many people.

Explanation:

This question asks you to understand direct statements that the author is making about national parks in the West. The author says that millions of people visit the parks “for a variety of reasons” and that “few leave disappointed.” In other words, the parks “satisfy the needs of many people,” as the correct answer (D) puts it. (A) is incorrect because the passage never compares parks in the West to those in the East. (B) contradicts the passage, which indicates that the parks serve many people. We cannot tell whether the author agrees with the statement in (C) because the passage says nothing about who should or should not be allowed to use national parks.

Skill Tested: UNDERSTANDING DIRECT STATEMENTS

 

Questions 3 and 4 refer to the following passage:

Television today sits in the center of American homes and not too far from the center of American lives, a companionable though unsettling kind of house pet. Here and there, somebody will claim independence from it by announcing scornfully, “I never watch television!” or even, “I don’t own a television set!” But such defiance matters little. You do not really need to have this pet in the house to be affected by it.

 

Question 3: Answer & Explanation Question:

  1. Which of the following best summarizes the main point of the passage?

(A) Americans cannot escape the influence of television.
(B) Americans love television as much as they love their pets.
(C) The role of television is in a stage of transition.
(D) Few people realize the advantages of television.

Right Answer: (A) Americans cannot escape the influence of television.

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to identify an important idea by recognizing the main point of the entire passage. (A) is the best answer here because the passage as a whole argues that the influence of television is found everywhere in American life. In fact, the last two sentences claim that even those few people who do not own a set “cannot escape the influence of television,” as (A) states. (B) is not the main point: the author refers to television as “an unsettling kind of house pet” but never develops–or even states–the idea that Americans love their sets as much as their pets. Nor does the passage discuss whether the role of television is changing (C), or whether people realize “the advantages of television” (D).

Skill Tested: IDENTIFYING IMPORTANT IDEAS

 

Question 4: Answer & Explanation Question:

  1. The passage suggests that people who claim to be unaffected by television are

(A) apologetic
(B) mistaken
(C) educated
(D) devious

Right Answer: (B) mistaken

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to recognize the author’s opinion of “people who claim to be unaffected by television.” Even though that opinion is not stated directly, the author’s “tone of voice” reveals his or her attitude toward them. Phrases such as “Here and there” and “or even” suggest that the author finds the people, or at least their views, unusual; furthermore, the statement “But such defiance matters little” shows that the author thinks these people are wrongheaded–or “mistaken”–in claiming independence from television. Hence (B) is the right answer. The author does not seem to think that the people are “apologetic” (A)–in fact, they “scornfully” proclaim their “defiance.” The author gives no opinion on whether these people are “educated” (C) or “devious” (D)–i.e., tricky in trying to hide what they really believe.

Skill Tested: RECOGNIZING PURPOSE AND STRATEGY

 

Questions 5 through 8 refer to the following passage:

It cannot be said that San Francisco was ever a planned city. It simply grew. What saved it from complete chaos was its fortunate geographic location on a hilly peninsula. The surrounding waters, like the walls of old cities in Europe, confined its growth and forced its builders to face limitations in space. Although builders tried to ignore the hills and laid their gridirons of square blocks and rectangular lots over hill and valley alike, some hills were too steep to be so overrun. Thus, despite the indifference of its citizenry, San Francisco became a beautiful city, and because of the varied nature of its population, it became a cosmopolitan city. It has always been spared the uniformity and dullness of the small town.

Question 5: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. In the context of the passage, “gridiron” means

(A) a regular geometric pattern
(B) a metal tool used by builders
(C) streetcar tracks
(D) geographical features

 

Right Answer: (A) a regular geometric pattern

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to find meaning in context–that is, to use surrounding details in the passage to determine the meaning of a word that may not be familiar to you. First, you should find the word “gridiron” in the passage (sentence 5); then look for nearby words and phrases that give clues about its meaning. Because “gridirons” are described as “square blocks and rectangular lots,” you can tell that they refer to “a regular geometric pattern.” Hence (A) is the best answer. (B) is incorrect: builders were not trying to lay metal tools “over hill and valley alike.” (C) is incorrect because “streetcar tracks” would have to form parallel lines, not exist as “square blocks and rectangular lots.” (D) is incorrect because gridirons could not be “geographical features” such as hills and valleys; rather, they are something that builders “laid . . . over” these features.

Skill Tested:

FINDING MEANING IN CONTEXT

 

Question 6: Answer & Explanation

 

  1. According to the passage, what do the waters surrounding San Francisco and the walls of old European cities have in common?

(A) They protect the city from invaders.
(B) They are natural phenomena.
(C) They are beautiful elements.
(D) They shape and limit urban growth.

 

Right Answer:

(D) They shape and limit urban growth.

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to understand a direct statement about what “the waters surrounding San Francisco and the walls of old European cities have in common.” The fourth sentence mentions both things, and the word “like” tells you that they have something in common: both the waters and the walls “confined [i.e., “restricted”] . . . growth and forced builders to face the limitations in space.” (D) is the correct answer because it makes essentially the same point. It is very possible that (A) and (C) are true statements, but neither can be the correct answer: the question asks what is true “according to the passage,” and the passage says nothing about whether the waters and the walls are protective or beautiful. (B) is incorrect because the passage does not say that these things are “natural phenomena” (and in fact walls built by people cannot be).

 

Skill Tested:  UNDERSTANDING DIRECT STATEMENTS

 

Question 7: Answer & Explanation

 

Question:

  1. What does the passage suggest about the planning and development of San Francisco?

(A) The present citizens of San Francisco are very concerned about city planning.
(B) So little planning went into the development of San Francisco that the overall effect of the city is one of chaos.
(C) The development of San Francisco on a hilly peninsula has contributed greatly to its beauty.
(D) The development of San Francisco on a hilly peninsula has been destructive to nature.

 

 

 

Right Answer: (C) The development of San Francisco on a hilly peninsula has contributed greatly to its beauty.

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to reason from the text by figuring out what is implied or suggested rather than stated directly. To do so, you need to bring together information from several different parts of the passage. The third sentence says that San Francisco was “saved” from chaos (confused disorder) by its “fortunate . . . location on a hilly peninsula”; the fifth sentence says that the hills kept builders from covering the city with repeated gridirons; and the next-to-last sentence says, “Thus . . . San Francisco became a beautiful city.” Pulling all of this information together, you can infer (C)–“The development of San Francisco on a hilly peninsula has contributed greatly to its beauty.” (A) contradicts the first sentence and the later statement about the “indifference” of San Franciscans. (B) also contradicts the passage, which explains how San Francisco avoided chaos. In contrast to (D), the passage suggests that nature–at least on the hills that are too steep for development–has been preserved rather than destroyed.

Skill Tested:  REASONING FROM THE TEXT

 

Question 8: Answer & Explanation

 

Question:

  1. The author assumes that small towns lack

(A) natural beauty
(B) space restrictions
(C) careful planning and development
(D) variety and interest

 

Right Answer: (D) variety and interest

 

Explanation:

This question, like question 7, asks you to reason from the text by inferring what the author assumes to be true of small towns in general. An assumption refers to something that a person must believe in order to make a particular statement. In stating that “uniformity and dullness” are characteristics of the small town, the author must also believe that small towns typically lack “variety and interest,” since “uniformity” means “lacking variety” and “dullness” means “lacking interest.” Hence (D) is the correct answer. The author could find “natural beauty” (A), “space restrictions” (B), or “careful planning and development” (C) in small towns and yet still say that they are characterized by “uniformity and dullness.”

Skill Tested:  REASONING FROM THE TEXT

Questions 9 and 10 refer to the following passage:

A recent study showed that in twelve cases of computer-related embezzlement, the average take was one million dollars. With such rewards, computer crime seems destined to flourish, especially because the chances of detection are slim; embezzlers are discovered more often by coincidence than by internal safeguards.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 9: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. Which of the following sentences best summarizes the passage?

(A) Annual reports concerning computer crime are accurate.
(B) Computer crime can be a very profitable business.
(C) Various techniques are used in computer crime.
(D) The adoption of safeguards against computer crime is widespread.

 

Right Answer: (B) Computer crime can be a very profitable business.

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to identify an important idea by recognizing the main point of the passage. The first sentence notes that the average case of computer-related embezzlement (theft) involves large sums of money, and the second sentence indicates that computer-related embezzlement is hard to stop. Both sentences function together to show that “computer crime can be a very profitable business”; hence (B) is the best answer. (A) is incorrect because the passage says nothing about annual reports or their accuracy. Although (C) and (D) may be true, the passage does not say that “various techniques are used in computer crime” or that “the adoption of safeguards . . . is widespread” (if anything, the passage suggests that current safeguards are insufficient).

Skill Tested:  IDENTIFYING IMPORTANT IDEAS

 

Question 10: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. According to the passage, the number of computer crimes will increase because

(A) people convicted of computer crimes receive light sentences
(B) most computer crimes are committed by accident
(C) the use of computers is growing
(D) the rewards outweigh the risks

 

Right Answer: (D) the rewards outweigh the risks

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to understand direct statements by seeing what the passage explicitly gives as reasons why “computer crimes will increase.” The first sentence states that the “average take” is high, and the second sentence states that “the chances of detection are . . . slim.” The best answer, then, is (D): “the rewards outweigh the risks.” (A) is incorrect because the passage says nothing about the sentences given to people convicted of computer crimes. (B) tends to contradict the passage, which suggests that computer crimes are deliberate but that they “are discovered . . . by coincidence.” (C) is a true statement and probably a real reason why computer crimes will increase; remember, though, that the question asks you to find the reason given in (“according to”) the passage.

Skill Tested:  UNDERSTANDING DIRECT STATEMENTS

 

 

Questions 11 through 13 refer to the following passage:

By happy coincidence, jazz emerged as a major musical form in this century just at the time the phonograph was invented. Such composers of classical music as Mozart and Beethoven made detailed notations that, centuries later, enable us to reproduce their original music. Early African America jazz composers, on the other hand, often created their music as they performed it. If it were not for the modern invention of the phonograph, the music of these great pioneers of jazz would have been lost.

Question 11: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. According to the passage, how did the invention of the phonograph affect jazz?

(A) It helped jazz become a major musical form.
(B) It made jazz musicians aware of other types of music.
(C) It stimulated the creativity of jazz musicians.
(D) It preserved unique performances of jazz.

 

Right Answer: (D) It preserved unique performances of jazz.

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to identify an important idea by bringing together information from different parts of the passage. According to the passage, jazz composers–unlike classical composers–“created their music as they performed it.” Because this music was created for the moment rather than written down to be “reproduced” later, jazz performances were one-of-a-kind: i.e., they were “unique.” The phonograph allowed these unique performances to be recorded and thus “preserved”; hence (D) is the best answer. The passage does not say that the phonograph “helped jazz become a major musical form” (A); in fact, “coincidence” suggests that jazz and the phonograph were independent developments that merely happened to occur around the same time. (B) and (C), although possibly true statements, cannot be the answers to the question because the passage does not discuss whether jazz musicians themselves listened to the phonograph.

Skill Tested:  IDENTIFYING IMPORTANT IDEAS

 

Question 12: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The passage mentions Mozart and Beethoven as examples of composers who

(A) were as popular in their own times as jazz musicians are today
(B) were at a disadvantage because of the limitations of technology in their times
(C) transmitted their works in written form to later ages
(D) created music that was less imaginative than that of the pioneers of jazz music

 

Right Answer: (C) transmitted their works in written form to later ages

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to recognize the author’s purpose and strategy in using the examples of Mozart and Beethoven; that is, it asks “What point are Mozart and Beethoven meant to illustrate?” In the second sentence, the phrase “Such . . . as” presents them as examples of classical composers who made “detailed notations” so that their works could be reproduced “centuries later.” Since (C) presents the same idea, it is the best answer. The passage does not say whether Mozart and Beethoven were popular in their own times (A), whether they suffered from the limitations of technology (B), or whether they were as imaginative as the pioneers of jazz (D); the comparison between classical and jazz composers involves only the use of musical notation.

Skill Tested:  RECOGNIZING PURPOSE AND STRATEGY

 

Question 13: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The passage supports which of the following statements?

(A) Jazz was slow to gain acceptance as a major musical form.
(B) The early jazz pioneers inspired the development of new technology.
(C) Jazz developed as a spontaneous form of musical expression.
(D) Jazz has influenced society more than classical music has.

 

Right Answer: (C) Jazz developed as a spontaneous form of musical expression.

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to recognize development and support–that is, to see what point is proved or strengthened by information presented in the passage. The passage says that “jazz composers . . . created their music as they performed it.” By explaining that jazz was not usually planned out or written down ahead of time, the passage gives evidence that “jazz developed as a spontaneous form of musical expression” (C). The passage does not provide any reasons or evidence to show whether jazz was fast or slow to “gain acceptance” (A), whether inventors of the new technology were inspired by, or even listened to, “early jazz pioneers” (B), or whether one form of music was more influential than the other (D). Consequently, the passage provides no development and support for these statements.

Skill Tested:  DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT

 

Questions 14 through 16 refer to the following passage:

Those who specialize in the study of language claim that no two people speak a language in precisely the same way. An individual’s version of a language is called an idiolect. Groups of speakers–separated from other groups by geographical, social, or economic barriers–also develop language habits peculiar to their own group. Such group differences are called dialects. Each person in a small town in Maine might speak his or her own idiolect, but the people of the town as a group will speak a dialect quite different from that spoken in a small town in Kentucky.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 14: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The author develops the idea that

(A) the speech patterns of individuals are inferior to the speech patterns of groups
(B) dialects are more difficult to study than idiolects
(C) language systems reflect both individual and group patterns
(D) barriers between regions should be removed in order to improve communication

 

Right Answer: (C) language systems reflect both individual and group patterns

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to identify an important idea that the author “develops”–that is, to find the idea that the author builds up throughout the passage. Note that the passage moves from defining and discussing idiolect (“an individual’s version of a language”) to defining and discussing dialect (“language habits peculiar to . . . [a] group).” The best answer is therefore (C): the author develops the idea that “language systems reflect both individual and group patterns.” (A) is incorrect because the author never discusses whether individual speech patterns can be called better or worse than group patterns. (B) is incorrect because the author never says that studying idiolects or dialects is difficult. (D) is incorrect because the author mentions “barriers” only to explain how different dialects arise, not to suggest that the barriers (and hence the dialects) should be eliminated.

Skill Tested:  IDENTIFYING IMPORTANT IDEAS

 

Question 15: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The author refers to “geographical, social, or economic barriers” mainly to show that

(A) individual speakers can control language changes
(B) external factors affect the language patterns of groups
(C) language study is not scientific
(D) speakers in Maine differ from those in Kentucky

 

Right Answer: (B) external factors affect the language patterns of groups

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to recognize purpose and strategy in seeing why the author mentions “geographical, social, or economic barriers.” In the third sentence, the author explains that these barriers separate groups of speakers which then develop their own “language habits.” The barriers (e.g., a geographical one, such as a mountain range) are “external” because they exist outside of a group, not as part of it. Hence (B) is the best answer: the author refers to the barriers to show that “external factors affect the language patterns of groups.” (A) is incorrect: the author never discusses whether “individual speakers can control language change,” and if anything the passage implies that the group effect of these barriers is beyond individual control. The author never says that “language study is not scientific” and in fact seems to imply that it is. (D) is also incorrect, but in a more subtle way: the author mentions barriers not to show that speakers in Maine and Kentucky are different, but rather to explain why they are different.

Skill Tested:  RECOGNIZING PURPOSE AND STRATEGY

 

Question 16: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The main purpose of the passage is to

(A) define idiolect and dialect
(B) argue for the value of change in languages
(C) give examples of how language changes over time
(D) illustrate grammatical differences among individual speakers

 

Right Answer: (A) define idiolect and dialect

 

Explanation:

This question asks you to recognize the main purpose of the passage–the author’s reason for writing it. (A) is the best answer because it explains what the author is trying to do throughout the passage: “define idiolect and dialect” by discussing individual and group language patterns. The author does not say that language change is a good thing (B), give specific instances of how language changes over time (C), or show us ways in which individual speakers use grammar differently (D).

Skill Tested:  RECOGNIZING PURPOSE AND STRATEGY

 

Composing Skills Test 1

 

 

Directions:
Questions 46-56 require you to rewrite sentences in your head. Each question tells you exactly how to begin your new sentence. Your new sentence should have the same meaning and contain the same information as the original sentence.

Example:
The student senate debated for two hours and finally voted down the resolution.

Rewrite, beginning with

Having debated the issue for two hours, . . .

The next word or words will be

(A) the issue

(B) it

(C) the student senate

(D) a vote

 

 

Question 46: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. Success in the corporation comes to those executives who do not merely manage machines, but manage people.

Rewrite, beginning with

The executives who succeed in the corporation do not merely manage . . .

The next words will be

(A) machines and also
(B) machines; they manage
(C) machines instead of
(D) machines, which

 

Right Answer: (B) machines; they manage

 

Explanation:

This question, like other “Construction Shift” questions, asks you to rephrase a statement by using a different grammatical construction to say the same thing. Having a variety of constructions that you can use comfortably and appropriately will give you power and flexibility as a writer. You should answer the “Construction Shift” questions by finding the choice that allows you to complete the underlined portion grammatically: that is, you should imagine how you could use each choice to finish the sentence. In the following explanations, we will use brackets to indicate [the imagined part]. For this question, the best choice is (B): “. . . machines; they manage [people.]” Completing the underline this way produces a grammatical statement that means the same thing as the original but is a bit more compact and emphatic. The rewritten sentence uses coordination (of two independent clauses) to highlight a distinction between two separate actions; executives manage machines and they manage people. (A) blurs this distinction by lumping the actions together, saying that executives “do not merely manage machines and also [people]. ” Because (C) says “. . . machines instead of [people],” it does not express the idea that executives manage people. In (D) “. . . machines, which [manage people]” makes an illogical statement: because the pronoun “which” refers to “machines,” (D) says that machines rather than executives manage people.

Skill Tested:  GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND IDIOM

 

Question 47: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. Most spiders are harmless friends of people and destroy fleas, mosquitoes, and other insects; black widows and tarantulas are the only exceptions.

Rewrite, beginning with

Except for black widows and tarantulas, . . .

The next word or words will be

(A) spiders
(B) the destruction
(C) fleas
(D) harmless friends

 

Right Answer: (A) spiders

 

Explanation:

Sometimes, as in the original sentence, coordination produces a wordy statement. To reduce wordiness, the underlined portion changes the whole clause after the semicolon into a concise phrase by dropping the needless verb “are.” Note too that starting the sentence with this phrase allows it to modify (i.e., describe) the subject of the main clause (“spiders”) clearly and economically. (A) is the best choice because it places the subject “spiders” right after the phrase that modifies it. The other choices will not let you finish a statement that is clear, concise, and grammatical. (B) “. . . the destruction [of fleas, mosquitoes, and other insects . . . .] does not allow you to say easily that “spiders are harmless friends of people”; also, the beginning phrase (“Except for . . .”) must describe spiders, not destruction. (C) is incorrect because the beginning phrase points to “fleas[, mosquitoes, and other insects . . . .],” illogically suggesting that these creatures are part of the group that includes “black widows and tarantulas”–i.e., that they are spiders, not that they are eaten by spiders. (D) “. . . harmless friends [of people are spiders that destroy . . .]” produces a very clumsy and awkward statement of the idea.

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 48: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. One person may try to increase satisfaction with his or her job by seeking more responsibility; another may compensate for dissatisfaction by devoting more time to hobbies.

Rewrite, beginning with

Dissatisfaction with a job may lead one person . . .

The next words will be

(A) to seek more responsibility and another to
(B) who searches for more responsibility and another for
(C) on a search for more responsibility or compensation
(D) to seek more responsibility or to compensate

 

Right Answer: (A) to seek more responsibility and another to

 

Explanation:

The underlined portion begins a construction that will cut down on wordiness by combining statements that overlap: “One person may try to increase satisfaction with his or her job . . .” and “another may compensate for [job] dissatisfaction . . . .” can both be summarized by saying “Dissatisfaction with a job may lead one person to seek . . . and another to [compensate . . . .]” Thus (A) is the best answer. (B) is incorrect because “who searches . . . .” is not a verb form that completes the action of “may lead”; an infinitive (“to —” form) is needed, as in “may lead one person to seek.” Similarly, we say “cause a person to fall,” not “cause a person who falls.” (C) lacks the infinitive and, contrary to the sense of the original sentence, has the same person searching for both “responsibility” and “compensation.” (D) supplies the infinitive but, like (C), fails to say that “one person” seeks responsibility while “another” person seeks to compensate with hobbies.

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

Question 49: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The cause was so worthy that there could be no criticism of it.

Rewrite, beginning with

There could be no criticism . . .

The next words will be

(A) since there was
(B) of the worthiness
(C) of such a worthy
(D) for the reason being

 

 

Right Answer: (C) of such a worthy

 

Explanation:

The original sentence has two clauses: “(1) The cause was so worthy (2) that there could be no criticism of it.” The underline begins a construction that streamlines the statement by keeping only the second clause: “There could be no criticism [of it].” Since “it” refers to “cause,” “it” can be replaced by “such a worthy cause” in the rewritten sentence. Thus (C) is the best answer. (A) and (D) are faulty because they do not produce the phrase “criticism of [a cause].” Consequently, both result in illogical statements: (A) “There could be no criticism since there was [a worthy cause.]” and (D) “There could be no criticism for the reason being [a worthy cause.]” In addition to being illogical, (D) is ungrammatical. (B) distorts the meaning of the original by saying that the criticism is “of the worthiness,” not “of a worthy cause.”

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

 

Question 50: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The environmental movement has been a force in society for over a decade and has helped to bring about a number of important changes.

Rewrite, beginning with

A force in society for over a decade, . . .

The next words will be

(A) it has been
(B) the environmental movement
(C) a number of important changes
(D) there have been

 

Right Answer: (B) the environmental movement

 

Explanation:

The underline substitutes a concise modifying phrase for the wordier original construction “. . . has been a force in society for over a decade and . . . .” Phrases that begin a sentence tend to describe the nearest noun, especially if that noun is the sentence subject. Since this phrase is meant to describe “the environmental movement,” those should be the next words after the underline, and (B) is therefore the best answer. (A) creates an illogical construction in which “force” is both the modifier and the subject: “A force in society for over a decade, it has been [a force in society . . . .]” (C) is faulty because “A force” now describes “changes,” not the “movement.” (D) produces a wordy and roundabout construction with unclear modification: “A force in society for over a decade, there have been [a number of important changes brought about by the environmental movement.]”

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

 

 

 

 

Question 51: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The impact of fiber optics on the people of the twenty-first century may be comparable to the impact of the dynamo on the people of the nineteenth.

Rewrite, beginning with

Fiber optics may be to the people of the twenty-first century . . .

The next words will be

(A) what the dynamo was
(B) a dramatic impact
(C) like
(D) the dynamo of

 

Right Answer: (A) what the dynamo was

 

Explanation:

An “idiom” in language is a particular form of expression, and phrasing which follows that form is called “idiomatic.” In English, one idiom takes the form “W is to X what Y is to Z.” The underline employs this idiom to make the original statement more concise: “The impact of W [fiber optics] on X [the people of the twenty-first century] may be comparable to the impact of Y [the dynamo] on Z [the people of the nineteenth]” can be rewritten simply as “W may be to X what Y was to Z.” The underline presents the first half of this idiomatic statement, and (A) correctly begins the second half. None of the other choices is idiomatic. The wording produced by (B) is illogical: “Fiber optics may be to the people of the twenty-first century a dramatic impact . . . .” says that fiber optics is an impact, not that it has an impact. (C) is faulty because “like” should be used to compare nouns, not actions expressed in clauses: e.g., we say “I did what I wanted” rather than “I did like I wanted.” Choice (D) does not allow you to complete the idea grammatically: “Fiber optics may be to the people of the twenty-first century the dynamo of . . . .” leaves no good way of including “to the people . . .” in the second half.

Skill Tested:  GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND IDIOM

 

 

Question 52: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. Pasteur’s discovery of a way to identify parasite-infested silkworm eggs saved the French silk industry.

Rewrite, beginning with

By discovering a method of identifying parasite-infested silkworm eggs, . . .

The next words will be

(A) the French silk industry was saved
(B) the saving of the French
(C) Pasteur’s discovery
(D) Pasteur saved

 

Right Answer: (D) Pasteur saved

 

Explanation:

In general, a phrase at the beginning of a sentence grammatically modifies the nearest noun, the subject of the sentence. For the modification to be logical in this rewritten sentence, the next words after the underlined phrase must name the person responsible for “discovering a method of identifying parasite-infested silkworm eggs.” That person is Pasteur, and so (D) is the correct answer. Modification is illogical in the other choices because Pasteur is not the nearest noun and sentence subject: (A) says that “the French silk industry” discovered the method, (B) says that “the saving . . .” discovered the method, and (C) says that “Pasteur’s discovery” discovered the method.

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

Question 53: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. Bitter memories of the Great Depression were evoked when Britain’s unemployment figure reached more than one million recently.

Rewrite, beginning with

Britain‘s unemployment figure reached more than one million . . .

The next words will be

(A) recently, evoking
(B) recently, evoked by
(C) recently, having evoked
(D) recently by evoking

 

Right Answer: (A) recently, evoking

 

Explanation:

Here the underline can be followed by a concise present participial (“–ing“) phrase that condenses the information in the wordy and passive original clause, “Bitter memories of the Great Depression were evoked . . . .” (A), the best choice, does so with “. . . evoking [bitter memories of the Great Depression.]” (B) is an illogical modifier: “evoked by [bitter memories . . . .]” says that the memories evoked the unemployment figure, not the other way around. (C) confuses the sequence of events, saying that the memories were “evoked” before the unemployment figure exceeded one million. (D) is also illogical: the idiom “by –ing” identifies the way in which something gets done, and so (D) suggests that bitter memories were the way in which the unemployment figure reached more than on million.

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

 

 

 

 

Question 54: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The House of Mirth, by Edith Wharton, shows the heroine falling from great success to misery and destitution.

Rewrite, beginning with

In Edith Wharton’s The House of Mirth, . . .

The next words will be

(A) it shows the heroine falling
(B) the heroine’s falling is
(C) the heroine falls
(D) the heroine’s fall to misery is

 

Right Answer: (C) the heroine falls

 

Explanation:

To state the idea of the original sentence more economically, the rewritten sentence begins with a prepositional phrase (“In” is a preposition). Such opening phrases tend to modify the nearest noun and sentence subject. For clarity and precision of meaning, then, the next words should name something that is “in” Wharton’s novel. Choice (C) is best, since we can properly refer to “the heroine in the novel.” Choice (A) is not as idiomatic or precise because “it shows” is not something “in the novel.” Choices (B) and (D) produce very awkward and wordy passive constructions: compare (C) “the heroine falls [from great success to misery . . . .]” with (B) “the heroine’s falling is [shown to be from great success to misery . . . .]” or with (D) “the heroine’s fall to misery is [shown from great success . . . .]” Note too that (D) leaves you nowhere to include “destitution.”

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

Question 55: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. A clenched fist shows anger, and drooping shoulders indicate despondency; the first is an example of conscious body language, while the second is unconscious.

Rewrite, beginning with

Body language may be unconscious, . . .

The next words will be

(A) that shows
(B) the first example
(C) as when
(D) and, for example, a

 

Right Answer: (C) as when

 

Explanation:

The original sentence is grammatically correct, but it awkwardly separates the description of the actions from statements about whether they are conscious or unconscious. You can make the whole sentence more clear and concise by using “subordination” to attach descriptions of the actions to statements about them. In (C), the best answer, “as” is a subordinating conjunction that attaches descriptive clauses to the main clause: “Body language may be unconscious, as when [drooping shoulders indicate despondency, or conscious, as when a clenched fist shows anger.]” The other choices produce awkward constructions that do not attach well to the main clause: (A) “Body language may be unconscious, that shows [despondency with drooping shoulders . . . .]” ; (B) “Body language may be unconscious, the first example [is when drooping shoulders indicate despondency . . . .]”; (D) “Body language may be unconscious, and, for example, a [drooping shoulders indicate despondency.]” Note too that (A) and (B) result in comma faults (by joining independent clauses with only a comma), while (D) uses “and” illogically and also creates an agreement error (singular “a” and plural “shoulders”).

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

 

Question 56: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. Images from the alleys and tenements of the Lower East Side of New York City in the late nineteenth century were brought to the attention of America by the photographs of Jacob Riis.

Rewrite, beginning with

Through his photographs, . . .

The next words will be

(A) he brought
(B) the attention
(C) Jacob Riis
(D) the alleys

 

Right Answer: (C) Jacob Riis

 

Explanation:

The original sentence, though grammatical, is made needlessly wordy by the passive construction “Images . . . were brought . . . by the photographs of Jacob Riis.” The underline begins with a simple prepositional phrase that allows you to rewrite the sentence in active voice (“Through” is a preposition). Since the next words should name the subject that the opening phrase modifies, (C) is best: “Through his photographs, Jacob Riis [brought images . . . .]” (A) is faulty because it does not allow Riis to be named in the completed sentence, “he brought [images . . . to the attention of America.”]; thus with (A) the pronoun “he” has no noun to which it can refer. Modification is illogical in (B) and (D) because “the attention” and “the alleys” did not take his photographs.

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

Directions:
In each of questions 57-67, select the best version of the underlined part of the sentence. Choice (A) is the same as the underlined portion of the original sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose answer (A).

Example:
Ancient Greeks ate with their fingers, wiped them on pieces of bread, and tossed them to the dogs lying under the table.

(A) tossed them

(B) tossing them

(C) tossed the bread

(D) they tossed

 

 

Question 57: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. Camera crews have been taking pictures of traffic during the rush hours, and it caused worse traffic congestion than usual.

(A) and it caused worse traffic congestion than usual
(B) and worse traffic congestion than usual had been caused
(C) causing worse traffic congestion than usual
(D) with worse than usual traffic congestion being caused

 

Right Answer: (C) causing worse traffic congestion than usual

 

Explanation:

The original version (A) is faulty because the pronoun “it” has no noun to which it can logically refer; instead, “it” refers vaguely to the action of the entire first clause. Grammatically, “it” should refer to the nearest singular preceding noun, but “traffic would make no sense here; substituting the noun “traffic” for the pronoun “it” produces the statement that “traffic caused worse traffic congestion than usual.” (B) is vague because it does not say exactly what caused worse traffic congestion. Also, “had been” is the wrong verb tense: because it refers to an earlier time period than “have been” in the first clause, it suggests that the traffic got worse before the camera crews began taking pictures. (C), the best choice, uses a present participial (“–ing“) phrase to modify the action of the main clause; only (C) states clearly that by “taking pictures” the camera crews are responsible for “causing worse traffic congestion.” The construction in (D) is wordy, imprecise, and indirect, failing to say what in particular is responsible for causing worse traffic congestion.

Skill Tested:  SENTENCE CONTROL AND CLARITY

 

Question 58: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. Unlike that of human beings, who die of thirst when deprived of water for several days, camels can survive for long periods without drinking.

(A) Unlike that of human beings, who die
(B) Unlike human beings, who die
(C) Different from human beings dying
(D) Dissimilar to human beings dying

 

Right Answer: (B) Unlike human beings, who die

 

Explanation:

In English, “like” and “unlike” are the words (prepositions) typically used to compare and contrast nouns. (B), which uses “unlike” to contrast the nouns “human beings” and “camels,” is therefore correct. The original version (A) mistakenly uses “that” to refer to some unnamed characteristic of human beings and contrasts that to camels. In (C) and (D), “Different from” and “Dissimilar to” are less concise and idiomatic than “unlike.” Also, “human beings dying [of thirst . . . .]” seems to refer to a particular group of people deprived of water (i.e., it is a restrictive modifier), not to human beings in general (nonrestrictive). The logic of the sentence requires a nonrestrictive modifier, which is indicated by the use of a comma: “human beings, who die . . . .”

Skill Tested:  GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND IDIOM

 

 

Question 59: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. According to Greek mythology, Perseus killed a hideous creature named Medusa, who had snakes in place of hair, and an onlooker would turn to stone by her glance.

(A) hair, and an onlooker would turn to stone by her glance
(B) hair, onlookers turned to stone when she glanced at them
(C) hair and whose glance would turn onlookers to stone
(D) hair, an onlooker being turned to stone by her glance

 

Right Answer: (C) hair and whose glance would turn onlookers to stone

 

Explanation:

Choice (C) is best here because it keeps the focus of the final two clauses on Medusa, “(1) who had snakes in place of hair and (2) whose glance would turn onlookers to stone.” The other choices awkwardly and needlessly shift the focus by making onlooker(s) the subject of the second clause. (A) is also faulty because “would be turned” is needed to form the passive construction properly. (B) produces a comma fault by using only a comma to join the independent clauses “Perseus killed . . .” and “onlookers turned . . . “; a semicolon is needed, or a comma plus the coordinating conjunction and.

Skill Tested:  GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND IDIOM

 

Question 60: Answer & Explanation

Question:

  1. The avocado farmers were looking for machinery that would help them harvest their crop more efficiently.

(A) that would help them harvest their crop
(B) for it to help them harvest the crop
(C) to enable their crop harvesting
(D) for their crop being harvested

 

Right Answer: (A) that would help them harvest their crop

 

Explanation:

The original version (A), the best choice, uses the relative pronoun “that” to refer to “machinery” and keep it as the subject of the underlined clause. In this way, the sentence can clearly express the idea that the “[machinery] would help them [the farmers] harvest their crop more efficiently.” (B) produces an ungrammatical and illogical repetition, as you can see by substituting the noun “machinery” for the pronoun “it”: “farmers were looking for machinery for [machinery] to help them . . . .” (C) is ungrammatical because “their crop harvesting” functions as a noun and cannot be modified by the adverbial “more efficiently” (adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs); (C) would be grammatical (although a bit awkward) if the sentence ended “to be more efficient.” (D) is ungrammatical and unclear, making it sound as though the farmers were looking for machinery for crops that were already “being harvested more efficiently.”

Skill Tested:  GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND IDIOM

 

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